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History: A 50 year old mixed race man was admitted in Coronary Care Unit after an episode of syncope and sudden onset chest pain associated with palpitations.


History: A 52 year old man with a history of arterial hypertension was admitted because of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (Fig. A) reverted by amiodarone.



History: The patient's mother presented at 33 weeks gestation for a fetal echocardiogram secondary to
a suspected cardiac abnormality on obstetrical ultrasound. 


History: A 17 year old male with a history of autism presented to the emergency room with a three day history of subjective fever, otitis media and acute onset of chest pain for one day

Cases of the Week 2015

Number 15-17: unenhanced cmr for suspected pulmonary embolism during the first trimester of pregnancy. when avoiding ionizating radiation and iodine contrast media really matters.

History: A case of PE at early pregnancy evaluated by CMR. When radiation and contrast media really matters. 


number 15-16: an incidental large ductus diverticulum 

History: An 85 year old male veteran had an incidental discovery of a large aneurysm in the region of a ductus diverticulum on a CT chest 2 years prior.


Number 15-15: Contained Cardiac Rupture Presenting With Syncope.

History: A 64-year-old male, a diabetic and a smoker, with no relevant cardiovascular history presented with a syncope during sexual intercourse after using sildenafil, with complete recovery after 10 minutes.



Number 15-14: Cardiac Involvement of Cystic Echinococcosis by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.


History: A 70-year-old female residing in a remote, rural part of Pakistan presented with several days of chest pain and dyspnea concerning for acute coronary syndrome.  


Number 15-13: Budd-Chiari: an unexpected imaging journey that ends with congenital CMR.

History: A 46 year old woman was referred to our hospital for investigation of vaginal blood loss. 


Number 15-12: Don’t always judge a heart by its echo.

History: A 64 year old male presented one year after cardiac transplant for routine follow up. A 2D transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a mobile, echogenic lesion along the inferior wall of the right atrium. 


Number 15-11: Cardiac magnetic resonance is the technique to evaluate anatomically corrected malposition of the great arteries

History: A symptomatic 50 year old woman previously diagnosed as congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (L-TGA) was referred to our department.

Number 15-10: Etiology of atrioventricular block visualized by cardiac magnetic resonance 

History: An 8-year old girl presented with clinical signs of low cardiac output after symptoms of fever and emesis during a few days. ECG revealed a complete atrio-ventricular (AV) block with a ventricular rate of 35 bpm and wide QRS complexes (120 ms) with variable axis deviation and bundle branch block morphology.

NUMBER 15-09: are myocardial crypts a genetic phenonmenon related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

History: A teenager who collapsed during athletic activity, has T wave inversion on ECG.


NUMBER 15-08: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (churg-strauss syndrome)

History: A 23 year-old gentleman presented to the coronary care unit with “dull aching” central chest pain without pleuritic or pericarditic features.


Number 15-07: Intrapulmonary Bronchogenic Cyst

History: An 84 year-old man presented after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and was successfully resuscitated.

Number 15-06: Atypical Variant of Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Relative Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

History: A 63 year old healthy man was seen in consultation for chest pain and an abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG).

Number 15-05: Endomyocardial fibrosis associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

History: An asymptomatic 42 year-old male is submitted for a CMR study after an echo scan showing asymmetric hypertrophy involving the apical segment of the left ventricle. A noticeable highly echogenic signal is described at the endocardial border of the thickened apical region.

Number 15-04: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as ST-segment elevation

History: 49-year-old gentleman diagnosed with T3aN0M1 metastatic renal cell carcinoma in September 2010, underwent a right-sided nephrectomy the same month. He presented to our emergency department with complaints of constant chest pain, which waxes and wanes in intensity and sharp in characteristic.

Number 15-03: Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus by CMR

History: A 70 year-old male had presented approximately 6 months prior to another hospital with fatigue, weakness, chest pain and dyspnea. At that time, left heart catheterization showed non-obstructive coronary artery disease and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressures with a restrictive filling pattern.

Number 15-02: Aneurysmal dilatation of aortic homograft in the Right Ventricular Outflow tract following Ross procedure

History: A 15-year-old boy presented with progressively worsening exertional dyspnea following balloon aortic valvotomy in infancy for congenital aortic stenosis.

Number 15-01: Early Recognition of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Phenotype by CMR

History: A 16-year-old boy was found to have an abnormal ECG during his appendectomy surgery. His background was remarkable for a small muscular VSD which had undergone spontaneous closure on an echocardiogram performed two years prior.


NUMBER 15-00: Etiology of antrioventricular block visualized by a cardiac magnetic resonance 

Cases of the Week 2014

Number 14-17: Just another routine follow-up Tetralogy of Fallot MRI

History: 15 year old boy with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) status post a valve-sparing repair who was referred for a cardiac MRI due to pulmonary valve insufficiency.

Number 14-16: Exercise Intolerance with d-Transposition of the Great Arteries

History: A 17 year-old male with a history of d-transposition of the great arteries status post arterial switch operation at age 3 days presented with increasing exercise intolerance.

Number 14-15: New Onset of Heart Failure in a Young Female

History: A 34 year-old female with a 2-month history of shortness of breath and new onset lower extremity edema presented to the emergency department for assessment.

Number 14-14: Late Presentation of Hemitruncus - the importance of XMR for clinical decision making

History: A three year old child presents with hemitruncus. This case illustrates the importance of an XMR facility for clinical decision-making in pediatric cardiology.

Number 14-13: Massive pericardial effusion due to cardiac angiosarcoma

History: A 58 year-old man was admitted to hospital with a short history of rapidly progressive breathlessness, haemoptysis, weight loss and fatigue.

Number 14-12: The Truth Behind False Aneurysms

History: An example of a false (pseudo) aneurysm and a true aneurysm in two different patients.

Number 14-11: Cardiac carcinoid metastasis: CMR evaluation

History: A 75-year-old Caucasian female, diagnosed with intestinal carcinoid tumor presented with a syncopal episode.

Number 14-10: Can cardiac magnetic resonance imaging alter management of idiopathic recurrent pleural effusions?

History: A 77-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of low-grade fever and dyspnea. Chest X-ray revealed large pleural effusions on the right side.

Number 14-09: Right Coronary Artery Encasement: A Sign For Detection Of Cardiac Lymphoma

History: A 77-year-old immuno-competent man was referred to our emergency room for onset of dyspnea, orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.

Number 14-08: Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance with Pharmacological Induced Stress to Evaluate the Hemodynamic Response of a Previously Dilated Aortic Coarctation.

History: A 16 year old male previously dilated from congenital post-ductal aortic coarctation (AoCo) through balloon angioplasty at age of 1 year-old, was referred to cardiovascular imaging to rule out any possible complications derived from high-performance and continuous physical activity as a professional soccer player.

Number 14-07: Large Left Ventricular Aneurysm Before and After Surgical Intervention

History: A 70 year old man with hepatitis B, solitary kidney and remote coronary artery bypass grafting from 17 years prior presented with an inferior myocardial infarction.

Number 14-06: Infarct or imposter

History: A 62 year-old Caucasian man presented to the Cardiology Clinic for a routine perioperative evaluation prior to juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

Number 14-05: Isolated Left Subclavian Artery from the Main Pulmonary Artery

History: A 3 year old girl was evaluated in clinic with a history of a previously diagnosed right aortic arch and a patent ductus arteriosus.

Number 14-04: Double chambered right ventricle or apical muscular VSD

History: A 22 year old female was seen for a routine follow up of her apical muscular ventricular septal defect (VSD).

Number 14-03: A case of an Inferior Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect diagnosed utilizing multimodality imaging

History: An asymptomatic 3 year old was evaluated for a murmur. Physical examination was significant for a widely split second heart sound with an ejection systolic murmur in the left upper sternal border.

Number 14-02: Cardiac Aspergilloma Recognized by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

History: Cardiac aspergilloma is a very rare entity. The diagnosis is usually made by direct observation of the fungal mass during surgery, biopsy, or pathology. We report the CMR findings in a patient with cardiac aspergilloma.

Number 14-01: Adenosine Stress Perfusion Imaging of a Systemic Right Ventricle post-Senning Repair

History: A 44 year old male status-post repair of dextro-transposition of the great arteries presented with atypical chest pain in the context of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia.

Cases of the Week 2013

Number 13-16: Comprehensive Evaluation of a Quadricuspid Aortic Valve by CMR

History: A 33-year-old man was suspected of having a regurgitant quadricuspid aortic valve on the basis of transthoracic echocardiography following the incidental discovery of a diastolic murmur.

Number 13-15: Acute MI in Cardiac Amyloidosis- an example of muti-disease capability of CMR

History: A 70-year male presented with gradual deterioration, breathlessness, and peripheral oedema as well as bilateral pleural effusions. He had previous CABGx4(LIMA LAD, VG to OM, Diagonal and RCA).

Number 13-14: Times they are [a] changin

History: A 23 year-old morbidly obese female presented with dyspnea on exertion. Shw was born with Down Syndrome, double outlet right ventricle, complete atrioventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis and underwent surgical correction at age 5. She also has a reported history of myocarditis at age 19 with resultant systolic dysfunction (EF 35-40%).

Number 13-13: Quadricuspid pulmonary valve

History: Clinical History: A 40 year-old male with no significant past medical history was referred for a chest CT due to the discovery of an enlarged pulmonary artery on routine chest x-ray.

Number 13-12: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Triggered by Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

History: This case report describes a case of co-incidental coronary disease, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, where cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was crucial in establishing the diagnoses.

Number 13-11: Sawtooth Cardiomyopathy

History: 19yo asymptomatic male with an abnormal left ventricular finding and ectopy.

Number 13-10: Pediatric Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Presenting as a Cardiac Mass

History: A six year old girl was referred to pediatric cardiology for evaluation of a heart murmur.

Number 13-09: Mitro-aortic valvular fibrosa aneurysm

History: A fifteen years old girl with known bicuspid aortic valve was admitted with ineffective endocarditis due to Strept. Agalactiae and treated with antibiotic therapy.

Number 13-08: Isolated Right Ventricular Infarction Without Evidence of Occlusive Coronary Artery Disease

History: A 53 year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to our hospital reporting severe substernal chest pressure with associated diaphoresis that woke him up from sleep. A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (figure 1) showed marked ST-segment elevation in leads V1, V2, and V3 and in the inferior leads II, III, and aVF, with ST depression in leads I, L, with T wave inversion in V5 and V6.

Number 13-07: An important tool before a tetralogy of Fallot reoperation

History: Progressive aortic root dilatation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot is a rare but recognized complication.The cardiovascular magnetic resonance in this case report represented a key tool for the surgical approach before a tetralogy of Fallot reoperation.

Number 13-06: Twisted atrioventricular connection in a fifteen-year-old boy with complete transposition of the great arteries who had arterial switch operation during infancy

History: An asymptomatic fifteen-year-old boy with dextrocardia and complete transposition of the great arteries (CTGA) who had arterial switch operation and closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD) during infancy.

Number 13-05: Partially anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior and inferior vena cavae

History: A previously healthy 18-year-old woman presented to an outside medical facility with fever and left scapular pain and was found to have an elevated D-dimer.

Number 13-04: Pericardial Agenesis

History: A 52 year old asymptomatic male affected by hypertension and without other remarkable past medical history presented to the outpatients clinic for check-up.

Number 13-03: Complicated isolated RV infarction – a diagnostic dilemma

History: 74 year old gentleman was discharged after an uneventful recovery following four vessel coronary artery bypass grafting, which was done for worsening angina pectoris and triple vessel disease.

Number 13-02: Pericystic fibrosis of a cardiac hydatid cyst

History: A 60-year-old man, originally from Sardinia, with diabetes and hypertension presented with sporadic, nonspecific precordial discomfort of short duration.

Number 13-01: Calcified aneurysm of Left ventricular apex in Apical Cardiomyopathy

History: A 65 year old, non-diabetic, normotensive and obese female complained of exertional angina of four years’ duration. She had a transient ischemic attack 15 days ago. Physical examination was unremarkable.

Cases of the Week 2012

Number 12-12: ‘Looking outside the box’

History: 59 yo female two months post abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a high grade endometrial leimyosarcoma.

Number 12-11: Post Pericardiectomy for Constriction – Late Complication

History: A 61 year old gentleman presented with worsening breathlessness for 2 years. He had a past history of COPD and idiopathic pericardial constriction which had been treated many years earlier by pericardial stripping through a median sternotomy.

Number 12-10: Complex Congenitally Corrected TGA

History: We present a case of a 27 year old Native American male with a past medical history of complex congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) with associated double outlet right ventricle (DORV), dextrocardia, subpulmonary stenosis, subpulmonary VSD and PDA.

Number 12-09: A Pseudo-“Alfieri” Aortic Valve Masquerading as Severe Aortic Stenosis

History: 69 year-old male with history of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, COPD, and metastatic lung cancer status post resection on radiation therapy was referred to a cardiothoracic surgeon for consideration of aortic valve replacement (AVR) after a routine transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) at an outside facility revealed evidence of severe aortic stenosis (AS) with a peak gradient of 105 mmHg and aortic valve area (AVA) of 0.78 cm2.

Number 12-08: A severe ductal aneurysm in a neonate

History: A four week old male infant was noted to be dysmorphic including hypertelorism, bilateral inguinal herniae, umbilical hernia and bilateral club feet. A right axillary mass was noted on examination; ultrasound revealed the mass to be a dilated and tortuous vessel but could not conclude definitively whether it was venous or arterial.

Number 12-07: The Study of Last Resort.

History: History: A 46-year-old man with history of Hodgkin’s lymphoma treated with radiation 20 years ago. Four years previously he had undergone pleurodesis for recurrent pleural effusions. He recently developed worsening dyspnea, lower extremity edema, and ascites. At another facility, he was treated initially for interstitial lung disease with bronchodilators without improvement of his symptoms. He was referred to our center for further evaluation.

Number 12-06: Long segment severe coarctation of the aorta in a 9 year old child

History: The patient is a previously healthy 9 year old child who presented to her primary care doctor with complaints of her feet turning white.

Number 12-05: Angiosarcoma presenting as a large right atrial mass

History: Patient presenting with constitutional symptoms and right atrial mass. Several differential diagnosis and CMR helped to point the correct diagnosis and plan treatment

Number 12-04: Heterotaxy and Tetralogy of Fallot

History: 27 year-old male with the history of heterotaxy syndrome, Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, and right aortic arch.

Number 12-03: Branch pulmonary artery flow curves in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

History: A 51 year old man was referred for a CMR study. He had repair of Tetralogy of Fallot in childhood.

Number 12-02: Echo and CMR in Acromegalic Cardiomyopathy

History: A 49 year-old male presented with a 10-day history of worsening shortness of breath, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and orthopnea

Number 12-01: Ruptured Left Ventricular Aneurysm

History: 68 year old female, smoker, with a history of hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 2007 she suffered from a myocardial infarction with incomplete revascularization.

Cases of the Week 2011

Number 11-24: Myocardial fatty focus in a patient with tuberous sclerosis

History: a 18 year old male with tuberous sclerosis presents for cardiac MR after an abnormal echogenic foci was identified on echocardiogram.

Number 11-23: Left Atrial Sarcoma

History: 53yo male with dyspnea and left atrial prolapsing sarcoma.

Number 11-22: Ebstein Anomaly in an Asymptomatic Air Force Professional

History: A 28 year old woman with history of Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome status-post ablation of a right posterolateral bypass tract in four years earlier who was referred to us for evaluation of an abnormal transthoracic echocardiogram.

Number 11-21: Utility of Cardiac MRI in Carcinoid Heart Disease

History: A 65 year old patient presented with symptoms of worsening right heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography showed right heart dilatation and severe tricuspid regurgitation with grossly abnormal, thickened and retracted tricuspid valve leaflets.

Number 11-20: Not Just Another Apical HCM

History: 63 year old male patient initially presented to the outpatient clinic with fatigue and progressive shortness of breath.

Number 11-19: Giant Left Ventricular Aneurysm

History: 69-year-old male with a history of previous myocardial infarction developed increasing exertional dyspnoea and angina four years after initial presentation. CMR demonstrated a left ventricular aneurysm with thrombus.

Number 11-18: CMR advancing towards the new reference standard in cardiac sarcoidosis

History: A 43-year old man with no remarkable past medical history presented with progressive dyspnea and peripheral edema. ECG showed frequent polymorphic ventricular ectopic beats Echocardiogram showed LV systolic dysfunction.

Number 11-17: Myocardial Contusion

History: Myocardial contusion is a ubiquitous cause of hospitalization. The most common etiologies are auto-pedestrian accident, CPR, fall from heights>20’, and motor vehicle accidents.The majority of patients will have a troponin leak and may have EKG changes. Since the right ventricle is the most anterior portion of the heart it is commonly traumatized.

Number 11-15: Mitral valve prolapse-widening views onto the myocardium by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

History: We describe two cases with known and previously documented mitral valve (MV)prolapse on transthoracic echocardiography.

Number 11-14: Anterior Mitral Valve Cleft in the Presence of a Primum ASD

History: Anterior Mitral Valve Cleft in the Presence of a Primum ASD.

Number 11-13: Fibro-fatty replacement and other abnormalities in suspected ARVC.

History: A 38 year-old man without symptoms. His father was diagnosed with right ventricular arrythmogenic cardiomyopathy after heart transplant for ventricular arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy.

Number 11-12: Oral Iron Supplementation: A Curious Contraindication to Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

History: 72 yo female with susceptibility artifact from oral iron ingestion.

Number 11-11: Chest pain in a young patient

History: An 18-year-old African American male was admitted to our Emergency Department after developing sudden and severe chest pain.

Number 11-10: Complications After Surgical Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot

History: A 24 year old man underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) at the age of 10 months.

Number 11-09: The case of disappearing aortic mass

History: A case of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction presenting with out of hospital VF arrest where CMR played a key role in establishing the underlying diagnosis.

Number 11-08: Innovative Viability Study for an Uncommon Complication of Myocardial Infarction

History: A 64 year old female with acute myocardial infarction 20 years earlier and CABG 10 years previously was admitted with 2 episodes of syncope.

Number 11-07: Percutaneous tricuspid valve implantation

History: Management of a 5-year old girl with tricuspid valve dysplasia.

Number 11-06: Bilateral Superior Vena Cavae

History: A previously healthy 23 year old military recruit presented to an outside hospital for a routine physical examination and a murmur was noted on exam.

Number 11-05: Cardiac Sarcoidosis: A Severe Presentation

History: A case of severe LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction, where CMR (in particular the pattern of LGE), together with ECG abnormalities pointed towards the correct diagnosis: cardiac sarcoidosis.

Number 11-04: One question with two answers. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in dual pathology.

History: A 79 year old man with a recent episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia.

Number 11-03: Post Traumatic Aortic Pseudoaneurysm

History: Unsuspected post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm in a patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome.

Number 11-02: Another cause of mitral regurgitation

History: A 65 year old female patient with severe, symptomatic mitral regurgitation underwent mitral valve repair for posterior mitral valve leaflet restriction (type IIIb). At surgery, the left atrial wall appeared abnormal and a left atrial biopsy was performed. Surprisingly, histological examination of this biopsy showed chronic, non-caseating granulomatous changes suggestive of sarcoidosis.

Number 11-01: Aberrant Left Upper Pulmonary Vein with drainage into the brachiocephalic vein.

History: A 43 year old male presented with history of dyspnea on exertion and family history of sudden cardiac death. Initial workup.

Cases of the Week 2010

This is our 100th Case! Number 10-26: Incidental Cardiac Mass

History: A 74-year old white male with previous history of CAD and CABG and chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, presented to our institution after a spontaneous fall while lawn mowing.

Number 10-27: Giant Systemic Venous Collateral

History: MRI evaluation of a double outlet right ventricle with a giant systemic venous collateral.

Number 10-25: Constrictive Pericarditis Post Cardiac Transplant: Diagnostic Role of Cardiovascular MRI

History: A 56-year old male underwent heart transplantation (HTX) 8 years ago.

Number 10-24: Acute Pericarditis

History: A 58-year old man, free from any previous medical history, presented to the emergency department with retrosternal oppressive chest pain, varying with inspiration and posture, of rapid installation and evolution after prolonged direct exposure to cold airflow from an air-conditioner.

Number 10-23: Cardiac Lipoma

History: A 57 year old woman with a family history of premature coronary artery disease and a prolonged history of exertional chest pain underwent an exercise stress test and multislice CT coronarography which were negative for myocardial ischemia and obstructive coronary artery disease.

Number 10-22: Anomalous Right Coronary Artery Arising from the Main Pulmonary Artery

History: Multimodality imaging of an anomalous right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary arterial trunk.

Number 10-21: Role of CMR in the diagnosis of ARVC

History: A 78 year old patient was admitted to the Accident and Emergency department with a syncope. The ECG showed a broad complex tachycardia (left bundle-branch morphology with superior axis) with a rate of 230 bpm. The patient received DC cardioversion under sedation, which resulted in sinus rhythm.

Number 10-20: Electrophysiologic and CMR features of ARVC

History: A 19-year old Caucasian female with documented ventricular tachycardia was referred to electrophysiology service.

Number 10-19: Clinical Utility of Stress CMR to Guide Management

History: A 49-year old male patient with previous history of inferior infarction treated with angioplasty and stenting of the RCA, was admitted for new onset angina at rest.

Number 10-18: Aortic Coarctation Repair with associated Bicuspid Aortic Valve

History: 3D MRA demonstrating pre and post stenting of descending thoracic aorta coactation in addition to a bicuspid aortic valve with dilated aortic root.

Number 10-17: Clinical role of perfusion CMR *** CASE WINNER

History: **best case of the week in 2011. A patient with chest pain had echocardiography suspicious for HCM - CMR resolved the true diagnosis of multivessel CAD.

Number 10-16: Improvement in Image Quality in Atrial Fibrillation by using a Novel Prospective Reconstruction Method

History: Presentation of alternative techniques for improving image quality in patients with arrhythmia.

Number 10-15: T2* CMR to tailor chelation therapies

History: A 35 year old male with beta-thalassemia major, regularly transfused since the age of 30 months, started chelation treatment with subcutaneous desferrioxamine at the age of 4 years.

Number 10-14: Persistent Left SVC and AF Ablation

History: Electrical Activation of Atrial Fibrillation via persistent left SVC.

Number 10-13: Cardiac Metastasis of the Renal Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed by CMR

History: A 59 year old male with history of pleuritic chest pain and pulmonary embolism presenting with painless hematuria.

Number 10-12: Spiral Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

History: This is a case of HCM with asymmetrical hypertrophy which is distributed in a spiral or helical way from base to apex.

Number 10-11: Cardiac Sarcoidosis

History: A 32-year-old man presented with chest pain, fever, erythema nodosum of the lower extremities and swelling of both ankles. ECG showed ST-elevation in leads I and aVL and troponin was raised 40-fold.

Number 10-10: The Case of Three Ventricles

History: Large left ventricular basilar aneurysm with thrombus secondary to infarct.

Number 10-09: Acute Pulmonary Edema in an Active Duty Officer in Iraq

History: A 27-year-old female active duty soldier with no significant past medical history was evacuated from Iraq for flash pulmonary edema.

Number 10-08: Perfusion Abnormalities in Cardiac Amyloidosis

History: A 68 year-old hypertensive male patient presented with typical chest pain. The ECG showed new characteristic ischemic changes and troponin dosage was positive. An urgent coronary angiogram revealed unobstructed epicardial coronary arteries. The echo showed a significant degree of septal wall thickening, out of proportion with his well-controlled blood pressure profile, suggesting possible hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Number 10-07: Sludge infarcts due to homozygous sickle cell anemia

History: 16 y/o male with homozygous sickle cell anemia presenting with a history of chest pain and normal coronary angiography.

Number 10-06: Common Trick, Uncommon Application

History: An incorrect diagnosis of Gerbode defect by CMR clarifed by echocardiography with agitated saline.

Number 10-05: Dobutamine inducible ischaemia: Case 2

History: An 48 year old male was admitted to hospital with 6 hours of crushing central chest pain.

Number 10-04: Hemorrhagic myocardial infarction

History: Case demonstrating CMR sequences which can aid in the effective diagnosis of hemorrhagic infarct.

Number 10-03: Unicuspid aortic valve and associated anomalies

History: A 24-year-old male underwent a subclavian flap repair for aortic coarctation at the age of 1. A recent echocardiogram had been reported as showing mild aortic regurgitation and a dilated aortic root.

Number 10-02: Dobutamine inducible ischaemia: Case 1

History: 62 year old asthmatic male presented to the cardiologists with worsening atypical chest pain and breathlessness on exertion.

Number 10-01: Myofibroblastic tumor of the right atrium in a 2-year old boy

History: A 2 year-old male with a history of one week febrile illness and cough was evaluated by his pediatrician

Cases of the Week 2009

Number 09-19: Pulmonary embolism by CMR

History: A 34-year-old white female with a history of anxiety, mild asthma, and allergic rhinitis was recently hospitalized with an episode of SVT.

Number 09-18: Traumatic interventricular septal dissection

History: A 15-year-old boy fell down into a 10 meters gutter, he was found spleen bleeding and pansystolic cardiac murmur at the left sternal border without rib fracture.

Number 09-17: Characterization of a left atrial anomaly with CMR

History: A 67-year-old female with hypertension presented with a 5-month history of exertional chest pain and dyspnea.

Number 09-16: A large and mysterious mass in the LV

History: A 59 y/o female with history of breast CA s/p right lumpectomy and ovarian CA was referred for CMR.

Number 09-15: Peripartum Cardiomyopathy?

History: CMR in possible Peripartum Cardiomyopathy demonstrates Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a carrier - scar burden reinforces decision for ICD implantation.

Number 09-14: CMR in Systemic Sclerosis

History: A 28 years old female with Scleroderma (SSc) for 11 years and acute angina and elevated creatine kinase (CK).

Number 09-13: Severe AI in a bicuspid AV assessed with CMR

History: A nice example of how CMR can be used to evaluate the severity of AI using cine and phase contrast CMR imaging.

Number 09-11: Gerbode Ventricular Septal Defect after Ross Procedure

History: A 26-year-old male patient with past medical history of aortic coarctation repair.

Number 09-10: An unusual complication of the Ross procedure and the role of CMR in its assessment

History: A 26 year old male had previously undergone a Ross procedure for a stenosed bicuspid aortic valve when aged 17yrs.

Number 09-09: Left Atrial Appendage Clot and Atrial Fibrillation

History: Atrial appendage thrombus post thoracoscopic atrial appendage amputation imaged with CMR.

Number 09-08: Syncopal Event in a Case of Kawasaki's

History: Kawasaki's Disease and Atrial Septal Aneurysm. Single imaging modality for complete assessment.

Number 09-07: All That Elevates Is Not Plaque Rupture

History: A 75-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation.

Number 09-06: Heterogeneous etiologies affecting a patient with cardiac amyloidosis

History: 81 year-old male with history of atrial fibrillation.

Number 09-05: Locating the leaks

History: 61 year old female with endocardial cushion referred for CMR to measure shunt flow.

Number 09-04: Diagnosing RV dilatation by CMR (2)

History: A 52 year old male with a dilated right ventricle and elevated pulmonary artery pressures on echocardiography.

Number 09-03: Coincident Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Left Ventricular Non-Compaction

History: Woman, 44 y/o, diagnosed by echocardiography of Non-Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Number 09-02: Giant LV Pseudoaneurysm by CMR

History: A 79 year old male with late-presentation lateral STEMI 3 days earlier.

Number 09-01: Is it or isn't it coronary artery disease?

History: A 46-year-old man presents with breathlessness, heart failure and chest pain. Troponin borderline.

Cases of the Week 2008

Number 08-23: A tricky diagnostic challenge

History: A man in his 40s presenting to respiratory medicine with 6 months breathlessness and hemoptysis.

Number 08-22: A Segmented thoracic mass

History: A 32 yrs old man was referred for assessment of iron loading by measurement of cardiac T2*. Past medical history of transfusion dependent thalassaemia (thalassemia) major and chronic iron chelation therapy.

Number 08-21: Myocardial scarring from 2 distinct pathologies

History: Asymptomatic 62 yr ?. Diagnosed with HCM more than 20 with an abnormal ECG. Recent echo demonstrated concentric LVH. CMR to further assess this.

Number 08-20: Imaging Restrictive cardiomyopathy by CMR

History: A 23 year old male presented with increasing dyspnea, abdominal distension, pedal edema and orthopnea over 18 months.

Number 08-19 Diagnosing RV dilatation by CMR

History: ** Case of the year winner, 2008.

Number 08-18 'Bystander' ST elevation MI in DCM

History: A 52 yr old lady, previously asymptomatic with no previous medical history, underwent a primary PCI for acute chest pain with inferior STEMI and LBBB. The left coronary system was unobstructed and RCA was occluded distally. PCI successfully established flow into the postero-lateral branch but not posterior descending branch of the RCA.

Number 08-17: Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia

History: 35yr male. Known previous DCM diagnosed via echocardiography. Currently stable, NYHA Class I, and well controlled. No significant arrhythmias noted. Referred for CMR.

Number 08-16: Advanced late gadolinium enhancement optimisation

History: 48 Y/O male from Kuwait presented with dyspnea and palpitations. Holter shows 2:1 heart block episodes. PMH: severe asthma.

Number 08-15: Danon Disease - A rare cause of LV hypertrophy

History: 20 years old male, history of RF ablation for WPW syndrome, without prior history of heart failure.

Number 08-14: Erdheim-Chester Disease by CMR

History: 41 year old black female admitted for chest pain, malaise, weakness and increasing peripheral edema. Tibial biopsy had demonstrated typical findings of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) 8 years earlier. She has previously documented involvement of the long bones, pancreas, pericardium and thoracic aorta with her ECD. Cardiac biomarkers were negative for myocardial necrosis.

Number 08-13: Viral Myocarditis by CMR

History: A 22-year-old college student noted chest pain one week after recovering from flu-like symptoms. His ECG revealed inferolateral ST-elevation and his cardiac biomarkers were elevated.

Number 08-12: Congenital Bicuspid Aortic Valve with Ascending Aortic Dilatation

History: 35 year old man. Known congenital bicuspid aortic valve. Recently noted ascending aortic dilatation on routine echocardiogram. Referred for a cardiac MRI for LV functional and morphologic assessment and contrast MRA for aortic evaluation.

Number 08-11: CMR for RA Mass characterization

History: A 37 yr female had an echocardiogram for chest pain showing a possible mass in the right atrium. CMR was performed to further characterize this.

Number 08-10: Interrupted Aortic Arch

History: 2 day old female, mild respiratory distress.

Number 08-09: Lipomatous Hypertrophy of the Interatrial Septum (LHIAS)

History: 73 year male. 1 year hx of myalgia and weight loss. RA mass on echo.

Number 08-08: Incidental chest findings - is CT needed?

History: A 54 yr old man with abnormal ECG and apical obliteration on LVgram but normal echo, was referred for CMR (possible apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy).

Number 08-07: Left Ventricular Trabeculae, Non-Compaction and DCM

History: 18 Y/O male presented with dyspnea and palpitations. His father had died suddenly at age 32.

Number 08-06: Coarctation & aortic stenosis?

History: A 46 year old male with 6 months breathlessness. Previous patch repair of "adult type" CoA.

Number 08-05: Acute MI, normal coronaries

History: A 44 yr old lady transferred for primary PCI for chest pain with lateral ST elevation. Troponin I 26, CK 1233. Normal lipids (TC:HDL 3.17). Only risk factor for IHD was hypertension: non-smoker.

Number 08-04: Where is the murmur from?

History: A 20 year-old Hispanic male with a murmur since childhood presented with worsening exertional chest pressure and dyspnea. CMR was ordered for further evaluation.

Number 08-03: Primary Pericardial Echinococcosis

History: A 47 year male previously admitted with a severe pericardial effusion which was drained and an associated left pleural effusion. Subsequently referred for a CMR scan with as a structure “like a cyst” was noted near the heart on echocardiography. 

Number 08-02: Apical HCM, fibrosis and sustained VT

History: An 82 yr man admitted with palpitations, presyncope and sustained monomorphic VT. Family history, his brother died age 6 of unknown cause.

Number 08-01: Measuring Dyssynchrony in Pulmonary Hypertension

History: A stable, idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertensive (IPAH) 38 year old female (PAP 110 mmHg, WHO functional class III) underwent CMR.

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